What I did at Lauder

Written on my “Departure” from NIWA ….

UV Going, going ….

In retrospect, my main contribution over nearly 34 years at Lauder (from 12 Nov 1979 to 27 Sept 2012) has been setting up new directions of research as changing needs have arisen. This has always been in collaboration with others, especially Paul Johnston in the earlier years, and who has remained the technical guru and backstop throughout my career at Lauder. I’ve had great help too from Mike Kotkamp on observational studies; and from Greg Bodeker, and more recently Ben Liley on science and analysis. And I would have been lost without Hisako Shiona’s object-oriented programming capability. But everybody at Lauder, past and present over those years, has helped me one way or another. Some may say my main contribution has been overseeing the work of others, and taking all the credit. I hope that’s not really the case.

Paul Johnston and I made the move from our old ionospheric research of aurora to stratospheric research when threats to the ozone layer were first raised (i.e., a move from a region 80 km or more in the atmosphere down to around 15-50 km). These trace gas measurements followed on from work undertaken by A.W. (Tony) Harrison, a visitor from Canada just prior to my arrival. At the time of my arrival, Gordon Keys was boss, but he was on sabbatical in Germany. Our measurements of stratospheric NO2 and ozone began about the end of 1980. That turned out to be very important, as we were making the right measurements as the right time and place before the ozone hole was discovered. This move had huge implications for future funding and job security. If we hadn’t made the move, Lauder research would have died years ago. We face a similar challenge today with the issue of moving from stratospheric research to climate change research.

In the simplest terms, my research output is summarised by the following graph.

In the last 20 years, my main work focus has been the UV program, which is now a victim of its own success. We were delighted when we won government funding support for this new work, and we have always delivered far more than required. Because of our success, our services were in high demand. But, as external contracts were won, our core funding was used to prop up other less successful programs. Ironically they are now much better funded than the original cash cow. Ben Liley calls this the “poisoned chalice” of external funding. Unfortunately it tends to be shorter term and when it runs out, continued allocations of core funding are based on the status quo at the time, rather than at the time before the diversions.

I’m grateful for the support I’ve received from my seniors outside Lauder. In particular, Mike Collins and Gary Betteridge from DSIR. Paul Hargreaves was also supportive in the early NIWA days. But by and large, our research activities and directions at Lauder have been driven by Lauder staff: in particular Andrew Matthews, and then Greg Bodeker. This internal impetus in scientific direction and delivery has been the strength of Lauder, but it is also the reason why its activities are under-appreciated outside Lauder.

I’m pleased with my contribution to Lauder’s success over its first 50 years. Hopefully I’ll continue to contribute to its future success in my new emeritus role.

Read on for all the gory details ….

The Whole Nine Yards

Our first stratospheric research paper, lovingly typed by my wife Louise, and  published in GRL paper in 1982, showed that stratospheric nitrogen dioxide is dominated by photochemistry (diurnally and seasonally).

A year later, our first publication of ozone measurements was the first using visible (rather than UV) radiation (GRL, 1983). The wavelength region is now widely used (in the so-called DOAS[1] method).

Paul and I also initiated tropospheric research in the early 1980s. Our 1984 paper in GRL Showed how remarkably low the concentrations of tropospheric NO2 could be at Lauder – sometimes as low as 20 ppt, which is still possibly a world record detection threshold. It was made more remarkable by the fact that this precision was orders of magnitude smaller than the quantisation limit of the A/D digitisation in our data logger. The clarity of air that we demonstrated is a major consideration in our ongoing work at Lauder (e.g., our subsequent status NDACC, BSRN sites –as described below).

We later published a paper on how the twilight data could be used to derive vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents (McKenzie et al., 1991). However, when the method failed to detect features in the profile such as the Antarctic ozone hole, I lost interest.

I never got as far as actually going to Antarctica. Our youngest son Hamish’s birth (17 August 1981) got in the way of that opportunity. But we did send an instrument down there on the 1981 “Winfly” mission, installed by Chris Johnson. Our NO2 measurements there and at Lauder debunked a competing theory for ozone depletion – one that was based on solar variability rather than CFCs (Johnston and McKenzie, 1989, Solomon, 1999).

The key to my subsequent success was the 3-year interlude to pursue a D Phil at Oxford between 1984 and 1986. The timing was fortuitous too, as it coincided with the discovery of the ozone hole. The Oxford PhD ticket opened doors. Dave Lowe had mentioned as much during a visit to Oxford, when he said “you’ll find that when you return to NZ, you will be much brighter (in the eyes of others)”. He based that on his experience on returning to NZ from a PhD in Germany. The words were prophetic in my case too.

By the time I returned from Oxford, ozone was an important issue. With the encouragement of Gary Betteridge, we realised of the need for spectral measurements of UV radiation to understand effects of ozone depletion, and how the UV climate of NZ compared with other locations. I initiated and managed of the highly successful UV radiation program, with great help from Paul Johnston and Mike Kotkamp. We established close links with the health community, and wrote dozens of peer-reviewed papers and assessments. Our UV achievements included:

  • Showed the inverse relationship between ozone and UV.
  • Demonstrated long term increase in UV at Lauder due to ozone depletion in the 1990s.
  • Through a series of successful international inter-comparison campaigns, we established ourselves as world leaders in atmospheric UV spectroscopy.
  • Set up of UV instruments at other sites, and on-going calibrations (provided ongoing income).
  • Showed that peak UV amounts in NZ are 40% more than at corresponding NH latitudes.
  • Showed the dependencies of UV on ozone, aerosols, cloud cover, albedo, and altitude.
  • Assisted Greg Bodeker to develop the UV Atlas that provides high spatial and temporal resolution UV information for the NZ region (see Bodeker et al., 1996, 2002, 2006).
  • Expanded Lauder research to include aerosol studies when Mt Pinatubo erupted in 1991.
  • Showed how remarkably clean (aerosol free) the atmosphere is at Lauder. Found that aerosol optical depths can be less than 0.01, which is ten times cleaner that what is considered to be clean air in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Co-authored paper (Koike et al., 1994) which demonstrated that the sorts of rapid ozone losses that occur in Antarctica (heterogeneous chemistry on ice crystal) can also occur at mi-latitudes (important for interactions with climate change, and for geo-engineering).
  • Established the BSRN radiation measurement suite, which proved crucial in understanding climate change issues. It makes Lauder NZ’s prime radiation measurement site, so it is now the centre for ongoing calibrations, with attendant revenue streams.
  • Assisted Martin Allen with his development of personal UV dosimeters & their calibration. Now widely used throughout the world, with giving revenue streams for NIWA.
  • Found the UV exposures needed to optimise health outcomes.
  • Showed that our understanding of vitamin d production by UV may be flawed.
  • Showed the health risks and benefits of sunbed use.

I’ve also played as big part in International Assessments that were part of the Montreal Protocol, and other international initiatives

  • Long-serving UV spectroscopy co-representative on the steering committee of such as the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition NDACC (formerly NDSC) for which, along with Prof Gunther Seckmeyer, who has also been a close collaborator for the last 20 years.
  • A major contributor on several WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessments of Ozone Depletion (lead author of UV chapter for 1991, 1994, and 1998 assessments; co-author for the 2002, 2006, and 2010 assessments).
  • A  panel member on several UNEP Effects Panel Assessments of Environmental Impacts of Ozone Depletion and its Interactions with Climate Change (lead author of the UV chapter from 1998 to 2010; co-author pre 1998 and post 2010).
  • Published over 120 papers in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Innumerable talks, lectures, seminars, public addresses, media liaisons, etc.  I have been a member of various expert panels convened by health agencies such as the Cancer Society to provide NZ’s position statements on UV and health.  Also, I disseminated UV information through web pages, convening UV Workshops etc.

I’ve also had a few failures. Most notably the ill-fated Mark II ZMR (Zeeman Modulator Radiometer), which was lovingly constructed at Gracefield Ave, Lower Hutt by DSIR’s Case Zwaneveld on my return to NZ from Oxford. It was an update of the instrument I developed for my PhD studies, and was designed to measure stratospheric nitric oxide, using a form of gas correlation spectroscopy, where lines of NO in a reference cell were moved by application of a magnetic field (the Zeeman Effect). But the emerging capability of achieving the same result with FTS spectrometers meant that the ZMR was effectively doomed even before construction was completed. Also, it was sadly very obvious just a few seconds after first turn on, that it just wasn’t going to work.

Along the way I’ve made a lot of friends, and very few enemies. I’ve enjoyed the collegiality at Lauder. It’s all been a lot of fun, despite the over-management by NIWA, and under-funding in recent years.

I was boss at DSIR Lauder for a couple of years just before the reorganisation of science in 1992. I was happy to step down from that role, which tended to alienate me from the day to day staff collegiality. Andrew Matthews, and then Paul Johnston did a much better job.

I’ve fostered/mentored several students and young scientists (e.g., Greg, Jordi). Hopefully this will continue with new Chinese links.

I’ve travelled extensively over those 34 years, with approximately one circumnavigation of the globe each year. My retirement will significantly reduce NZ’s carbon footprint. That might be my best contribution to NZ Inc.

I think it’s true to say that I’ve been an agent of change. But as in all scientific endeavours, it doesn’t happen alone. The cliché of “standing on the shoulders of others (if not giants)” could not be truer in my case.

A summary of published outputs and main collaborators is listed below.

Author Affiliation

N

McKenzie et al DSIR/NIWA

>120

With Paul Johnston DSIR/NIWA

46

With Gunther Seckmeyer Germany

18

With Ben Liley NIWA

17

With Alkis Bais Greece

17

With Mike Kotkamp NIWA

16

With Sasha Madronich NCAR/USA

14

With Greg Bodeker NIWA

14

With Lars Olof Bjorn Sweden

14


[1] DOAS = Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy. We later applied matrix inversion techniques to data measured by DOAS to derive atmospheric vertical profiles of minor atmospheric constituents such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone (McKenzie et al., 1991).

Publications

Allan, B., K. Riedel, R. McKenzie, S. Nichol, and T. Clarkson (2006), Earth, Sea and Sky: Atmosphere, in Te Ara – the on line Encyclopedia of New Zealand, edited, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington.

Allen, M., and R. McKenzie (2005), Enhanced UV exposure on a ski-field compared with exposures at sea level, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 4(5), 429-437.

Badosa, J., J. A. Gonzàlez, J. Calbó, M. V. Weele, and R. L. McKenzie (2005), Using a parameterization of a radiative transfer model to build high resolution maps of typical UV index in Catalonia, Spain, J. Appl. Meteorol., 44(6), 789–803.

Badosa, J., J. Calbo, J. A. Gonzalez, R. L. McKenzie, M. Kotkamp, P. V. Johnston, and M. O’Neill (2007), Towards closure between measured and modelled UV: Three case studies, paper presented at One century of UV radiation research, PMOD/WRC, 18-20 September, 2007.

Badosa, J., R. L. McKenzie, M. Kotkamp, J. Calbó, J. A. González, P. V. Johnston, M. O’Neill, and D. J. Anderson (2007), Towards closure between measured and modelled UV under clear skies at four diverse sites, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2817-2837.

Bais, A. F., et al. (2007), Surface ultraviolet radiation: Past, present and future, in Chapter 7 of WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, edited by D. L. Albritton, A.-L. Ajavon, N. and R. T. Watson, p. 58, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 55, Geneva.

Bais, A. F., et al. (2001), SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D12), 12509-12526.

Bais, A. F., et al. (2003), International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: Spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 8543.

Bernhard, G., G. Seckmeyer, R. L. McKenzie, and P. V. Johnston (1998), Ratio spectra as a quality control tool for solar spectral UV measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D22), 28,855-828,861.

Bernhard, G., R. L. McKenzie, M. Kotkamp, S. Wood, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, P. Johnston, and S. E. Nichol (2008), Comparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers in Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14310.

Bittar, A., and R. L. McKenzie (1990), Spectral UV intensity measurements at 45°S: 1980 and 1988, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D5), 5597-5603.

Björn, L. O., and R. L. McKenzie (2002), Ozone depletion and effects of ultraviolet radiation, in Photobiology. The science of light and life, edited by L. O. Björn, Kluwer publications, Kordrecht.

Björn, L. O., and R. L. McKenzie (2007), Attempts to probe the ozone layer and the UV-B levels of the past, Ambio, 36(5), 366-371.

Björn, L. O., and R. L. McKenzie (2008), Ozone depletion and effects of ultraviolet radiation (revised), in Photobiology. The science of light and life, edited by L. O. Bjorn, pp. Approx 685 p., with 267 illus., Springer, Kordrecht.

Blumthaler, M., B. Schallhart, M. Schwarzmann, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, M. Kotkamp, and H. Shiona (2008), Spectral UV measurements of global irradiance, solar radiance, and actinic fluxes in New Zealand: inter comparison between instruments and model calculations, Journal of Oceanic and Atmospheric Science and Technology (JOAST), 25(6), 945-958.

Bodeker, G. E., and R. L. McKenzie (1993), Erythemal UV at 45°S: longitudinal and secular variability, Weather & Climate, 13(2), 17-21.

Bodeker, G. E., and R. L. McKenzie (1996), An algorithm for inferring surface UV irradiance including cloud effects, J. Appl. Meteorol., 35(10), 1860-1877.

Bodeker, G. E., and R. L. McKenzie (2004), Potential sources of anomalously low ozone over southern midlatitudes in 1985, paper presented at 20th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, International Ozone Commission, Athens, Greece, 2-8 June 2004.

Bodeker, G. E., J. C. Scott, K. Kreher, and R. L. McKenzie (2001), Global ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates using TOMS and GOME intercompared against the Dobson network: 1978-1998, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D19), 23029-23042.

Bodhaine, B. A., E. G. Dutton, R. L. McKenzie, and P. V. Johnston (1998), Calibrating broadband UV instruments: ozone and solar zenith angle dependence, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15(4), 916-926.

Bodhaine, B. A., E. G. Dutton, D. J. Hofmann, R. L. McKenzie, and P. V. Johnston (1997), Spectral UV measurements at Mauna Loa: July 1995-July 1996, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D15), 19,265-219,273.

Bodhaine, B. A., R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, D. J. Hofmann, E. G. Dutton, R. C. Schnell, J. E. Barnes, S. C. Ryan, and M. Kotkamp (1996), New ultraviolet spectroradiometer measurements at Mauna Loa observatory, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(16), 2121-2124.

Chen, L., G. Yan, T. Wang, H. Ren, J. Calbó, J. Zhao, and R. McKenzie (2012), Estimation of surface shortwave radiation components under all sky conditions: modeling and sensitivity analysis, Remote Sens. Environ., 123, 457–469.

Connor, B. J., G. E. Bodeker, and R. L. McKenzie (2006, submitted), On the connection of summertime ozone and ultraviolet radiation at Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes to the Antarctic ozone hole, Geophys. Res. Lett.

Connor, B. J., G. E. Bodeker, R. L. McKenzie, and I. S. Boyd (1999), The total ozone anomaly at Lauder, New Zealand, in 1997, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(2), 189-192.

Douglass, A., et al. (2011), Stratospheric Ozone and Surface Ultraviolet Radiation, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010: Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project–Report No. 52, edited, p. 516, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.

Flint, S. D., C. L. Ballaré, M. M. Caldwell, and R. McKenzie (2008), Comment on “Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina” by Hector D’Antoni et.al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(L13710).

Fukuda, M., et al. (2007, submitted), Oxidation and removal of reactive nitrogen in Tokyo, J. Geophys. Res.

Grainger, R. G., R. E. Basher, and R. L. McKenzie (1993), UV-B Robertson-Berger meter characterization and field calibration, Appl. Opt., 32(3), 343-349.

Häder, D.-P., M. Lebert, M. Schuster, L. del Ciampo, E. W. Helbling, and R. McKenzie (2007), ELDONET – a decade of monitoring solar radiation on five continents, Photochem. Photobiol., 83, 1–10.

Herman, J. R., R. L. McKenzie, S. B. Diaz, J. B. Kerr, S. Madronich, and G. Seckmeyer (1999), Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface, in Chapter 5 of WMO Scientific Assessment of the Ozone Layer: 1998, edited by D. L. Albritton, P. J. Aucamp, G. Megie and R. T. Watson, WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No 44, Geneva.

Hofmann, D., et al. (1995), Intercomparison of UV/visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D8), 16,765-716,791.

Hofzumahaus, A., et al. (2004), Photolysis frequency of O3 to O(1D): Measurements and modeling during the international photolysis frequency measurements and modeling intercomparison (IPMMI), J. Geophys. Res., 109(8), D08S90  10.1029/2003JD004333.

Johnston, P. V., and R. L. McKenzie (1984), Long-path absorption measurements of tropospheric NO2 in rural  New Zealand, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11(1), 69-72.

Johnston, P. V., and R. L. McKenzie (1989), NO2 observations at 45S during the decreasing phase of solar  cycle 21, from 1980 to 1987, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 3473-3486.

Johnston, P. V., J. G. Keys, and R. L. McKenzie (1994), NO2 column changes induced by volcanic eruptions, paper presented at Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA CP-3266, Greenbelt, Md, 1992.

Johnston, P. V., R. L. McKenzie, J. G. Keys, and W. A. Matthews (1992), Observations of depleted stratospheric NO2 following the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(2), 211-213.

Kerr, J. B., et al. (2003), Surface ultraviolet radiation: Past and future, in Chapter 5 of WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, edited by A.-L. Ajavon, N., D. L. Albritton, G. Megie and R. T. Watson, p. 47, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 47, Geneva.

Koike, M., N. B. Jones, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, R. L. McKenzie, D. Kinnison, and J. Rodriguez (1994), Impact of Pinatubo aerosols on the partitioning between NO2  and HNO3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(7), 597-600.

Kondo, Y., et al. (2008), Formation of and transport oxidized reactive nitrogen, ozone, and secondary organic aerosol in Tokyo, J. Geophys. Res., 113(D21310).

Lantz, K., et al. (2008), The 2003 North American Interagency Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers: Scanning and spectrograph instruments, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2, 023547.

Liley, J. B., and R. L. McKenzie (2006), Where on Earth has the highest UV?, paper presented at UV Radiation and its Effects: an update, 19-21 April.

Liley, J. B., P. V. Johnston, R. L. McKenzie, A. J. Thomas, and I. S. Boyd (2000), Stratospheric NO2 variations from a long time series at Lauder, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D9), 11633-11640.

Livesey, J., P. Elder, J. Ellis, C. Florkowski, R. McKenzie, and B. Liley (2007), Response to the letter by Bolland et al on defining vitamin D deficiency, NZ Medical J., 120(1265).

Livesey, J., P. Elder, J. Ellis, R. McKenzie, B. Liley, and C. Florkowski (2007), Seasonal variation in vitamin D levels in the Canterbury population in relation to available UV radiation, NZ Medical J., 120(1262), http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1262/2733/.

Madronich, S., R. L. McKenzie, M. M. Caldwell, and L. O. Björn (1994), Changes in ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, in Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Assessment, edited by J. C. van der Leun, X. Tang and M. Tevini, pp. 1-22, UNEP, Nairobi.

Madronich, S., R. L. McKenzie, M. M. Caldwell, and L. O. Björn (1995), Changes in ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, Ambio, 24(3), 143-152.

Madronich, S., R. L. McKenzie, L. O. Björn, and M. M. Caldwell (1998), Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, in Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment, edited by J. C. van der Leun, X. Tang and M. Tevini, pp. 1-27, UNEP, Nairobi.

Madronich, S., R. L. McKenzie, L. O. Björn, and M. M. Caldwell (1998), Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, 46(1), 5-19.

Matthews, W. A., and R. L. McKenzie (2006), Parallels and contrasts between the science of ozone depletion and climate change, in UV Radiation and its Effects: an update, edited, Dunedin, NZ.

McKenzie, R. L. (1991), Application of a simple model to calculate latitudinal and hemispheric differences in ultraviolet radiation., Weather and Climate, 11, 3-14.

McKenzie, R. L. (1994), UV spectral irradiance measurements in New Zealand: effects of Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, paper presented at Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA CP-3266, Greenbelt, Md, 1992.

McKenzie, R. L. (1996), Ozone depletion and UV radiation: a health risk to New Zealanders?, The New Zealand Public Health Report, 3(10), 75-77.

McKenzie, R. L. (2003), Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2002 assessment, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2(1), 1-72.

McKenzie, R. L. (2006), Ozone and UV, in NZ OnLine Encyclopedia: “Earth, Sea, and Sky”, edited.

McKenzie, R. L. (2008), Position Statement on the Risks and benefits of Sun Exposure in New Zealand Rep., 18 pp, Cancer Society of New Zealand.

McKenzie, R. L., and R. M. Nisbet (1982), Applicability of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures in the Fiji region, Remote Sens. Environ., 12(5), 349-361.

McKenzie, R. L., and P. V. Johnston (1982), Seasonal variations in stratospheric NO2 at 45S, Geophys. Res. Lett., 9, 1255-1258.

McKenzie, R. L., and P. V. Johnston (1983), Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide measurements at Arrival Heights, Antarctica, N.Z. Antarctic Record, 5(2), 12.

McKenzie, R. L., and P. V. Johnston (1983), Stratospheric ozone observations simultaneous with NO2 at 45S, Geophys. Res. Lett., 4, 337-340.

McKenzie, R. L., and P. V. Johnston (1984), Springtime stratospheric NO2 in Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11(1), 73-75.

McKenzie, R. L., and P. V. Johnston (1985), Southern hemisphere nitrogen dioxide, paper presented at Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984.

McKenzie, R. L., and G. D. Peskett (1988), A radiometer based on the principle of Zeeman modulation designed for the measurement of NO in the atmosphere, Appl. Opt., 27(16), 3475-3481.

McKenzie, R. L., and H. K. Roscoe (1988), Zeeman modulation contrasted with pressure modulation in its use in measuring NO from the ground, Appl. Opt., 27(19), 3988-3993.

McKenzie, R. L., and J. M. Elwood (1990), Intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation and its implications for skin cancer, NZ Medical Journal, 103(887), 152-154.

McKenzie, R. L., and P. V. Johnston (1995), Comment on “Problems of UV-B radiation measurements in biological  research: critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements” by H. Tug and M.E.M. Baumann, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(9), 1157-1158.

McKenzie, R. L., and S. Madronich (2002), Ultraviolet, Surface, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, edited by J. R. Holton, J. Pyle and J. A. Curry, pp. 2474-2480, Academic Press, London.

McKenzie, R. L., and J. B. Liley (2009), Balancing Risks and Benefits of UV radiation, in UV Radiation in Global Change:  Measurements, Modeling and Effects on Ecosystems, edited by W. Gao, D. L. Schmoldt and J. R. Slusser, pp. 21-47 of 544, Tsinghua University Proess and Springer-Verlag, Beijing.

McKenzie, R. L., G. D. Peskett, and H. K. Roscoe (1988), Measurements of stratospheric columns of NO made with the Zeeman modulation radiometer during MAP/GLOBUS, J. Geophys. Res., 93(D11), 14177-14185.

McKenzie, R. L., W. A. Matthews, and P. V. Johnston (1991), The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone derived from spectral irradiance measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(12), 2269-2272.

McKenzie, r. L., M. Kotkamp, and W. Ireland (1996), Upwelling UV spectral irradiances and surface albedo measurements at Lauder, New Zealand, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(14), 1757-1760.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, and G. Seckmeyer (1997), UV spectro-radiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC), paper presented at Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Modelling, Measurements and Effects, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, October 1995.

McKenzie, R. L., K. J. Paulin, and M. Kotkamp (1997), Erythemal UV irradiances at Lauder, New Zealand: relationship  between horizontal and normal incidence, Photochem. Photobiol., 66(5), 683-689.

McKenzie, R. L., K. J. Paulin, and S. Madronich (1998), Effects of snow cover on UV radiation and surface albedo: a case study, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D22), 28785-28792.

McKenzie, R. L., B. J. Connor, and G. E. Bodeker (1999), Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss, Science, 285(10 September), 1709-1711.

McKenzie, R., D. Smale, and M. Kotkamp (2004), Relationship between UVB and erythemally weighted radiation, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 3(3), 252 – 256.

McKenzie, R., P. Johnston, and B. Liley (2006), Huge seasonal and latitudinal variability in vitamin-D production from sunlight, New Zealand Family Physician (NZFP), 32(2), 87-88.

McKenzie, R., B. Liley, and P. Johnston (2006), UV exposure and vitamin D production (editorial), New Zealand Public Health Surveillance Report (NZPHSR), 4(2), 2.

McKenzie, R. L., J. B. Liley, and L. O. Björn (2009), UV Radiation: Balancing Risks and Benefits, Photochem. Photobiol., 85, 88-98.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, J. M. Zawodny, and M. P. McCormick (1989), NO2 column intercomparison between ground-based measurements at Lauder, New Zealand (45°S) and colocated SAGE II satellite measurements, paper presented at Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1988, A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988.

McKenzie, R. L., M. Ilyas, J. E. Frederick, and V. Filyushkin (1992), Ultraviolet radiation changes, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1991, edited, pp. 11.11-11.14, WMO Global Ozone Res. and Monit. Proj., Geneva.

McKenzie, R. L., L. O. Björn, A. Bais, and M. Ilyas (2002), Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. Rep., 10 pp, WMO/UNEP.

McKenzie, R., D. Smale, G. Bodeker, and H. Claude (2003), Ozone profile differences between Europe and New Zealand: Effects on surface UV irradiance and its estimation from satellite sensors, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D6), 4179.

McKenzie, R. L., L. O. Björn, A. Bais, and M. Ilyas (2003), Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2(1), 5-15.

McKenzie, R. L., G. E. Bodeker, P. V. Johnston, and M. Kotkamp (2004), Long term changes in summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone change, paper presented at Proceedings of the XX  Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, International Ozone Commission, Athens, Greece, 2-8 June 2004.

McKenzie, R. L., L. O. Björn, A. Bais, and M. Ilyas (2004), Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change:  Progress report 2003, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 3(1), 1-5.

McKenzie, R. L., J. Badosa, M. Kotkamp, and P. V. Johnston (2005), Effects of the temperature dependence in PTFE diffusers on observed UV irradiances, Geophysical Research  Letters, 32(L06808).

McKenzie, R. L., G. E. Bodeker, G. Scott, and J. Slusser (2006), Geographical differences in erythemally-weighted UV measured at mid-latitude USDA sites, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 5(3), 343-352.

McKenzie, R. L., W. A. Matthews, Y. Kondo, R. Zander, and et al. (1988), Intercomparison of NO column measurements during MAP/GLOBUS 1985, J. Atmos. Chem., 7, 353-367.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon (1991), Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight, J. Geophys. Res., 96(8), 15499-15511.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, M. Kotkamp, A. Bittar, and J. D. Hamlin (1992), Solar ultraviolet spectroradiometry in New Zealand: Instrumentation and sample results from 1990, Appl. Opt., 31, 6501-6509.

McKenzie, R. L., G. E. Bodeker, D. J. Keep, M. Kotkamp, and J. H. Evans (1996), UV radiation in New Zealand: measured North to South differences, and relationship to other latitudes, Weather and Climate, 16(1), 17-26.

McKenzie, R. L., K. J. Paulin, G. E. Bodeker, J. B. Liley, and A. P. Sturman (1998), Cloud cover measured by satellite and from the ground: relationship to UV radiation at the surface, Int. J. Remote Sensing, 19(15), 2969-2985.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, D. Smale, B. Bodhaine, and S. Madronich (2001), Altitude effects on UV spectral irradiance deduced from measurements at Lauder, New Zealand and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D19), 22845-22860.

McKenzie, R. L., P. J. Aucamp, A. F. Bais, L. O. Björn, and M. Ilyas (2007), Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface  (Chapter 1 of the UNEP Effects Panel Assessment: 2006), Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 6(UNEP Special Issue), 218-231.

McKenzie, R. L., P. J. Aucamp, A. F. Bais, L. O. Björn, M. Ilyas, and S. Madronich (2011), Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 10(2), (Special issue Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2010 assessment), 182-198.

McKenzie, R. L., R. Scragg, J. B. Liley, P. V. Johnston, J. Wishart, and A. Reeder (2012), Sunburn versus vitamin D induced by UV from solaria and sunlight in New Zealand, Weather and Climate, 32(1), 51-65.

McKenzie, R. L., M. Kotkamp, G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, and S. J. Toomey (1993), First southern hemisphere intercomparison of measured solar UV spectra, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(20), 2223-2226.

McKenzie, R., R. Scragg, B. Liley, A. Stewart, P. Johnston, J. Wishart, and R. Prematunga (2012), Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D responses to multiple UV exposures from solaria: inferences for exposures to sunlight, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 11, 1174-1185.

McKenzie, R. L., M. Blumthaler, R. Booth, S. B. Diaz, J. E. Frederick, T. Ito, S. Madronich, and G. Seckmeyer (1995), Surface ultraviolet radiation, in UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, edited by D. L. Albritton, R. T. Watson and P. J. Aucamp, pp. 9.1-9.22, WMO Global Ozone Res. and Monit. Proj., Geneva.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, S. Madronich, C. Cantrell, J. Calvert, and R. Shetter (2002), Relationship between photolysis frequencies derived from spectroscopic measurements of actinic fluxes and irradiances during the IPMMI campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D5), 10.1029/2001JD000601.

McKenzie, R., M. Blumthaler, S. Diaz, V. Fioletov, J. Herman, G. Seckmeyer, A. Smedley, and A. Webb (2012, submitted), Rationalising UV Units, CIE J.

McKenzie, R. L., C. Weinreis, P. V. Johnston, B. Liley, H. Shiona, M. Kotkamp, D. Smale, N. Takegawa, and Y. Kondo (2008), Effects of urban pollution on UV spectral irradiances, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5683–5697.

McKenzie, R. L., J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai (1994), Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(9), 789-792.

McKenzie, R. L., P. V. Johnston, G. E. Bodeker, M. Kotkamp, B. A. Bodhaine, D. J. Hofmann, E. G. Dutton, R. C. Schnell, J. E. Barnes, and S. C. Ryan (1998), UV spectral irradiance comparison and contrast between Mauna Loa  observatory, Hawaii, and Lauder, New Zealand, paper presented at Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Parco Scientifico e Technologico d’Abruzzio, L’Aquila, Italy, 12-21 September 1996.

Nessvi, S., L. Johansson, J. Jopson, A. Stewart, A. Reeder, R. McKenzie, and R. Scragg (2011), Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin colour and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure, Photochem. Photobiol., 87, 1173-1178.

Newman, P., and R. McKenzie (2011), UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 10 1152-1160.

Nichol, S. E., G. Pfister, G. E. Bodeker, R. L. McKenzie, S. W. Wood, and G. Bernhard (2003), Mitigation of cloud reduction of UV in the Antarctic due to high surface albedo, J. Appl. Meteorol., 42(8), 1174-1183.

Pfister, G., R. McKenzie, B. Liley, and A. Thomas (2001), Cloud coverage based on allsky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance, in Communicating Meteorology, edited, Meteorological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Pfister, G., R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, A. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long (2003), Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance, J. Appl. Meteorol., 42(10), 1421-1434.

Reisinger, A. R., G. J. Fraser, P. V. Johnston, R. L. McKenzie, and W. A. Matthews (1998), Slow-scanning DOAS system for urban air pollution monitoring, paper presented at Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Parco Scientifico e Technologico d’Abruzzio, L’Aquila, Italy, 12-21 September 1996.

Relethford, J. L., and R. L. McKenzie (1998), Reply (Response to “Comment on ‘Hemispheric Differences in Skin Color’ “, by Chaplin and Jablonski), Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 107, 223-224.

Rosen, J. M., N. T. Kjome, R. L. McKenzie, and J. B. Liley (1994), Decay of Mount Pinatubo aerosol at midlatitudes in the northern  and southern hemispheres, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), 25733-25739.

Salmon, P., W. Chan, J. Griffin, R. McKenzie, and M. Rademaker (2007), Extremely High levels of Melanoma and Melanoma-in-situ in Tauranga, New Zealand: Possible Causes and Comparisons with Australia and the Northern Hemisphere., Australasian J Dermatology, 48(4), 208-216.

Seckmeyer, G., A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, K. Lantz, and R. L. McKenzie (2008), Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 2: Broadband instruments measuring erythemally weighted solar irradianceRep., 51 pp, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva.

Seckmeyer, G., A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, B. Johnsen, K. Lantz, and R. McKenzie (2010), Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Part 3: Multi-channel filter instruments Rep. 125, 30 pp, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva.

Seckmeyer, G., A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K.Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann (2010), Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers Rep., World Meteorological Organisation Geneva.

Seckmeyer, G., M. Klingebiel, S. Riechelmann, I. Lohse, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, M. W. Allen, A.-M. Siani, and G. R. Casale (2012), A Critical assessment of two types of personal UV dosimeters Photochem. Photobiol., 88(1), 215–222.

Seckmeyer, G., A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy (2001), Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet irradiance. Part 1: spectral instruments Rep., 30 pp, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva.

Seckmeyer, G., et al. (1995), Geographical differences in the UV measured by intercompared spectroradiometers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(14), 1889-1892.

Seckmeyer, G., et al. (2008), Europe’s darker atmosphere in the UV-B, Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 7( 925–930), 10.1039/b804109a.

Shetter, R. E., et al. (2003), Photolysis frequency of NO2: Measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI), J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 10.1029/2002JD002932.

Slusser, J., W. Gao, and R. McKenzie (2002), Advances in ground-based and space-based measurements and modeling – guest editorial, Optical Engineering, 41(12), 3006-3007.

Swift, N., J. Hamlin, K. Nield, and R. McKenzie (2012), Angular Response Characterisation of Broadband UVB Sensors with Artificial Sources, in International Radiation Symposium (IRS), edited, Berlin.

Tanskanen, A., et al. (2007), Validation of the daily erythemal UV doses from Ozone Monitoring Instrument with ground-based UV measurement data, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D24S44).

White, M. G., G. J. Smith, K. G. Ryan, R. B. Coppell, D. Backshall, C. J. Edmunds, and R. L. McKenzie (1992), Erythemal and carcinogenic ultraviolet radiation at three New Zealand cities, Weather and Climate, 12(2), 83-88.

Wuttke, S., G. Bernhard, J. C. Ehramjian, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, M. O’Neill, and G. Seckmeyer (2006), New spectrometers complying with the NDSC standards, Journal of Oceanic and Atmospheric Technology, 23(2), 241-251.

Zeng, J., R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, and J. Rosen (1994), Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 23019-23030.

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